No, you cannot do that.
A basic principle of iCloud is: What is in iCloud is on your device (and vice versa).
But if your goal is to have more free memory on your iOS device you can use the icloud to free up memory on your IOS-Device: by activating the automatic optimization of your memory on your iOS device:
In the iCloud you always have all the data (e.g. fotos, e.g. music, e.g. documents in iCloud Drive, etc.). On your iOS-Device you have all of the data "available" (e.g. 200GB iCloud Data available on a 64GB iOS Device) but it is only like a "preview" of the data on the iOS-device. As soon as you try to access such a preview (e.g. a foto you watch) it will be downloaded completely from iCloud to your device (you need to be online then).
In the end you have "unlimited memory" on your iOS device (in fact limited to the data plan of your iCloud space, e.g. 200 GB data plan) and you do not have to take care about the space on your device any longer (or move data from one place to another).
PS: I know all the discussion about "i do not need all of my fotos on my iOS device. It would be ok to have them in the icloud and only parts of the fotos on my iOS-device". But as I said in the beginning this is not possible with iCloud.